Adapters are fittings used to extend the length of runs and/or change the type of connection at the end of a pipe length. The latter function allows dissimilar pipes—i.e., pipes of different sizes or connection types—to fit and attach together without requiring complicated equipment. They are available in a variety of metal and plastic materials to suit different fluid systems and fluid conditions.
Similar to adapters, bushings are fittings used to connect different types of pipes, particularly ones of different sizes (e.g., a large pipe to a small pipe). They generally feature internal and external threads and come in a wide range of metal and plastic materials. Compared to other fittings that perform a similar function (e.g., couplings and unions), they take up much less space.
- Caps and Plugs
Caps and plugs are fittings used to close off the end of the piping run. Caps are designed to fit over the outside of the pipe and attach via threading or brazing methods, while plugs are designed to fit inside of the pipe and attach via threading. Both types of fittings are available in multiple materials and sizes.
Couplings are fittings used to extend the length of the pipe run and/or change the size of the pipe. They are available in female threaded or unthreaded variations. The latter is attached via plastic gluing or soldering methods. Material options include brass, chrome-plated brass, copper, stainless steel, ABS, and PVC.
Crosses are four-way fittings consisting of either one inlet port and three outlet ports or three inlet ports and one outlet port. The four ports are positioned at 90-degree angles from one another. They are commonly used in fire sprinkler systems to divert the flow of water to the desired direction or directions. As they are essentially a combination of two tees, the two types of fittings can be used interchangeably, depending on the preferences of the user. They are available in equal or reducing variations.
Elbows are fittings used to change the direction of flow within a piping system. They are available in two standard designs (45-degree and 90-degree) but can be custom manufactured in other designs if needed. They also come in two radius styles—short radius and long radius—and threaded or unthreaded variations.
Flanges are fittings used to facilitate the formation of strong pipe connections in high and low pressure fluid systems. They are designed to be threaded or welded to pipes and then sealed with bolts. Typical applications include industrial processing systems and residential pump systems.
Nipples are fittings used to connect straight pipe runs. They consist of a short piece of pipe with male threads on each end. Some variations feature threads along their entire length to facilitate the formation of a tight connection between close piping components. They are manufactured in various materials, including brass, chrome-plated brass, copper, stainless steel, iron, and PVC, and generally used in low-pressure piping systems.
Traps are fittings used to create a U- or P-shaped bend in a horizontal pipe run. They are generally integrated into the plumbing systems within kitchens and bathrooms to prevent debris from flowing further into the system and system odors from making their way back into the facility.
Tees are fittings used to connect three or more pipes. They feature a T-shape design formed by a short piece of pipe with a 90-degree branch at the center. They are available in different sizes based on their run and branch. In straight tees, the diameter of the branch is the same as the diameter of the run. In reducing tees, the diameter of the branch is smaller than the diameter of the run. Typical applications include potable water supply and drainage systems.
Unions are fittings that serve as an excellent alternative to couplings when the intended connection is in an unusual configuration or hard-to-reach area. Unlike couplings, which require the pipes to be threaded into them, unions come with a nut that creates a seal between the pipes. This design allows for easy installation and removal on fixed pipe components. They are generally not recommended for use in natural gas or LP gas lines.
Similar to tees, wyes are fittings used to connect three or more pipes. However, instead of a T-shaped design, they have a Y-shaped design. The branch diverts from the pipe run at a 45-degree angle, which allows for smoother flow of fluids through the component. While tees are generally used in vertical drain connections, wyes are used in horizontal drain connections.
SSP manufactures a broad line of stainless steel pipe fittings for instrumentation and industrial applications. In addition to NPT fittings, SSP offers BSPT fittings, and SAE and BSPP straight threaded fittings from 1/16 up to 2 in.
Pipe fittings (also referred to as pipe connectors) are components used to connect one pipe to another to extend the length of the run or to modify the direction and/or volume of flow within the fluid system. They are available in a wide number of variations that differ in design and construction to suit the unique demands of their respective applications.
While this broad selection helps to ensure that industry professionals can find a pipe fitting that meets their specific needs, it also makes it more critical to identify which fitting is the right one for the particular system and application. Otherwise, there is a risk of the part not functioning effectively, which can lead to reduced system performance, efficiency, and in severe cases, system failure. For this reason, the team at SSP has put together the following guide on common fitting types, including what they are, how they function, and typical use cases.
- Instrumentation Pipe Fittings
SSP offers two lines of instrumentation grade stainless steel pipe fittings: TruFit® and TruFit 10K® pipe fittings. TruFit10K pipe fittings are designed so that all 10K fittings are rated to 10,000 psig. All TruFit and TruFit10K fittings are manufactured to restricted thread tolerances to provide extended thread engagement for a tighter seal.
TruFit10K pipe fittings are available only in 316 Stainless Steel. TruFit fittings are available in 316 Stainless Steel, Alloy 400, Alloy C-276 and Brass.
NPT fittings are cleaned and individually bagged and capped to prevent contamination and damage prior to installation. SSP manufacturing, assembly, and shipping processes maintain material traceability. Material certifications are available on request.
General Instrumentation Pipe Fitting Specifications
- Temperature: -425° to 1200°F (-253 to 648°C)
- MAWP: 12,000 psig
- Body Materials: 316 Stainless Steel, Brass, Alloy 400
- Sizes from 1/16 to 2in.
- Industrial Pipe Fittings
SSP offers three lines of line of industrial stainless steel pipe fittings: Threaded Pipe Fittings and Adapters, Pipe Swivel (NPSM) and Koncentric Pipe Unions. Alloy 400 and brass are also available for many configurations. SSP industrial pipe fittings are found in hydraulic systems, chemical plants, and all sorts of industrial and military equipment where leak-tight performance is required. SSP produces all forgings in our in-house forging operation. This allows us to control the metallurgical properties and dimensions of all pipe fitting elbows, tees, and crosses. Rolled threads are used extensively, again for superior strength and holding capability. All pipe fittings are manufactured to comply with the design criteria of Society of Automotive Engineers Standard J514, and ASME 31.3 and 31.1 and other industry standards.
General Industrial Pipe Fitting Specifications
- Temperature: – 425° to 1200°F (-253 to 648°C)
- MAWP: 12,000 psig
- Body Materials: 316/316L Stainless Steel, Brass, Alloy 400
- Sizes from 1/8 – 2 in.
*Instrumentation pipe fittings are available only through Authorized SSP Instrumentation Distributors.